Publication ethics are fundamental principles that guide the conduct of academic journals and their contributors, ensuring integrity, transparency, and fairness in the dissemination of research findings. Some key aspects of publication ethics for journals include:

Duties of Editors:

Fair Play and Editorial Independence

Editors must evaluate manuscripts objectively, free from any biased decisions based on factors such as race, gender, geographical origin, or religion of the author(s). Manuscripts should be assessed solely based on their academic merit and intellectual content, without any influence from commercial interests or personal affiliations.


Editors should maintain the confidentiality of submitted manuscripts and refrain from disclosing any information about them before publication. This ensures that authors' work is protected and that the peer review process remains fair and impartial.

Disclosure and conflicts of interest

Editors and editorial board members are bound to confidentiality, refraining from using unpublished manuscript information for personal research without explicit consent. They must keep privileged information obtained during manuscript handling confidential and not exploit it for personal advantage. In cases of conflicts of interest, editors will recuse themselves from manuscript consideration and delegate to another board member to maintain impartiality. Upholding these standards ensures integrity and fairness in the editorial process while respecting authors' rights and confidentiality.

Publication Decisions

Editors ensure that all submitted manuscripts undergo rigorous peer review by at least two experts in the field. The Editor-in-Chief is tasked with the final decision on publication, considering the validation and significance of the work, reviewer feedback, and legal obligations regarding libel, copyright, and plagiarism. Collaboration with other editors or reviewers may aid in this decision-making process.

Duties of Reviewers:

Contribution to Editorial Decisions

Peer review is a cornerstone of scholarly communication, aiding editors in making informed decisions regarding manuscript acceptance. Through constructive feedback and rigorous evaluation, reviewers assist authors in enhancing the quality and clarity of their work, thereby contributing to the advancement of scientific knowledge.


If any invited reviewer feels they lack the expertise necessary to assess the research presented in a manuscript, or if they anticipate being unable to provide a timely review, they are encouraged to promptly inform the editors and decline the invitation to review. This allows for alternative reviewers to be sought.


All Manuscripts submitted for review are deemed confidential and must be handled accordingly; they are not to be shared with or discussed with any unauthorized individuals, except with explicit permission from the designated authority (typically the Editor-in-Chief), and only in rare and warranted circumstances. This protocol extends to invited reviewers who opt not to undertake the review process.

Standards of Objectivity

Reviews should be conducted objectively and observations formulated clearly with supporting arguments so that authors can use them for improving the manuscript. Personal criticism of the authors is inappropriate.

Acknowledgement of Sources

Reviewers should find important past research not mentioned by the authors and cite it. If you're using an idea from another paper, make sure to include the citation. Also, let the editors know if the current manuscript is very similar to another one you know about, whether it's been published or not.

Disclosure and Conflict of Interest

Reviewers must avoid assessing manuscripts if they have conflicts of interest arising from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships with the authors, affiliated companies, or institutions. Any confidential information or insights gained through peer review should remain private and not be exploited for personal gain.

Duties of Authors:

Reporting standards

Authors of original research should honestly report their work and findings, followed by an impartial discussion of its importance. The manuscript should provide enough detail and references for others to replicate the study. Review articles should be truthful, unbiased, and thorough, while editorials expressing opinion should be clearly labeled as such. Deliberately false or misleading statements are unethical and not tolerated.

Data Access and Retention

Authors are requested to submit the raw data along with their paper for editorial assessment. They should be willing to make this data publicly accessible if possible, and at the very least, be ready to store it for a reasonable period after publication.

Originality and Plagiarism

Authors must guarantee that they submit entirely original work and properly cite any material or ideas borrowed from others. This includes acknowledging publications that have influenced their research. Plagiarism comes in various forms, such as presenting someone else's work as your own, copying sections without credit, or claiming results from research done by others. Any form of plagiarism is unethical and not tolerated in publishing.

Multiple, Duplicate, Redundant or Concurrent Submission/Publication

Authors should avoid submitting the same research to multiple journals or publications simultaneously, as this is considered unethical. Once a manuscript has been published elsewhere, it should not be submitted for consideration elsewhere. However, there are exceptions for certain types of articles, such as clinical guidelines or translations, which may be published in more than one journal under specific conditions. In such cases, all involved parties must agree, and the secondary publication must reference the primary one, maintaining consistency in data and interpretation

Authorship of the Paper

Authorship should be reserved for those who have significantly contributed to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the study. All significant contributors should be listed as co-authors, while those involved in specific aspects of the research should be acknowledged. The corresponding author is responsible for ensuring that all appropriate co-authors are included and that they have approved the final version for publication. Additionally, any potential hazards associated with the use of chemicals, procedures, or equipment must be clearly identified in the manuscript

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

All authors are required to disclose any financial or other significant conflicts of interest that could potentially influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. Additionally, all sources of financial support for the project should be clearly stated in the manuscript.

Fundamental Errors in Published Works

If authors become aware of significant errors or inaccuracies in their published work, they must inform the journal's editors or publisher without delay and collaborate with them to issue either an erratum or retract the paper. Similarly, if a third party alerts the editors or publisher about a significant error or inaccuracy in a published work, the authors are responsible for promptly correcting or retracting the paper, or providing evidence of its accuracy to the journal editors.